Vaccines

Background

Correct vaccination prevents an estimated 2.5 million deaths each year (Source: WHO). Protected from the threat of vaccine-preventable diseases, immunized children have the opportunity to thrive and a better health outcome.

According to the WHO, A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.

Types of Vaccines

There are four main types of vaccines that act in different ways:

  • Live-attenuated vaccines
  • Inactivated vaccines
  • Subunit, recombinant, conjugate, and polysaccharide vaccine
  • Toxoid vaccine e.g. absorbent tetanus toxoid injection

Live attenuated vaccine

 It is a weakened version that does not cause any symptoms of infection as it is unable to reproduce once it is in the body. Live-attenuated vaccines trigger an immune response that is similar to what would occur during a natural infection, but the person is not able to pass on the virus to other people and will not become ill with the disease the virus causes.

The types of diseases that live-attenuated vaccines are used for include:            

  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR combined vaccine)
  • Rotavirus
  • Smallpox
  • Chickenpox
  • Yellow fever.

Inactivated vaccines are

the earliest type of vaccine to be produced and they do not trigger an immune response that is as strong as that triggered by live-attenuated vaccines.

The types of diseases that inactivated vaccines are used for include:

  • Hepatitis A
  • Flu
  • Polio                                                      

Subunit, recombinant, conjugate, and polysaccharide vaccines

 Uses particular parts of a germ or virus. They can trigger very strong immune responses in the body because they use a specific part of the germ.

Common Vaccine Preventable Disease

  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Tetanus
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Yellow fever
  • Rotavirus
  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis
  • Human Papilloma virus (Cervical cancer)

TUBERCULOSIS

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.

(TB) is a contagious infection that usually attacks your lungs. It can also spread to other parts of your body, like your brain and spine. Most people infected with the bacteria that cause tuberculosis don’t have symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they usually include:-

  • Cough (sometimes blood-tinged),
  • Weight loss,
  • Night sweats

According to world health organization (WHO):- A total of 1.4 million people died from TB in 2019 (including 208 000 people with HIV) Worldwide, TB is one of the top 10 causes of death in the world.

TREATMENT

TB is a treatable and curable disease. Active, drug-susceptible TB disease is treated with a standard 6-month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer. Without such support, treatment adherence is more difficult. Consult your health officer for clarity.

Since 2000, an estimated 63 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment.

VACCINATION

In countries where tuberculosis is more common, infants often are vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine because it can prevent severe tuberculosis in children.

HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS:

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Many people with HPV don’t develop any symptoms but can still infect others through sexual contact. According to world health organization more than 1.5millions cases are recorded in Nigeria per year. There are different types of HPV, and some can increase the risk of cancer. Each year, around 19,400 females and 12,100 males in the U.S. develop cancers that stem from HPV.

VACCINATION: A vaccine that prevents the HPV strains most likely to cause genital warts and cervical cancer is recommended for boys and girls from age nine to fourteen In three doses. See table below for details

HEPATITIS B VIRUS

Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected.

Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. There are other types of hepatitis. Those caused by viruses also include hepatitis A and hepatitis C

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Accidental needle stick(Health care provider)
  • Mother to child (child birth or breastfeeding)
  • Sharing of needles or sharp object

Symtoms

Jaundice

Stomach pain

Joint pain

Fatigue

Vaccination remains affordable and dependable preventive measure.

HEPATITIS B VACCINATION SCHEDULE

Reference

  1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335475908_Pharmacist_role_in_vaccination_Evidence_and_challenges
  2. https://www.paho.org/disasters/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&category_slug=courses-1&alias=1008-cold-chain-management-rrt-logistics-2010&Itemid=1179&lang=en
  3. https://www.googleadservices.com/pagead/aclk?sa=L&ai=DChcSEwj5lbDW6rHtAhWJwu0KHbfKCccYABAAGgJkZw&ae=2&ohost=www.google.com&cid=CAESQeD2soGPG4BDi1aXAjb4QL9JoiNBn6pdTeQyjzvmuJlyQK9_tPERGPOCEkRIpdXGx7BjcUXknh0G7dyRwKV1kNz1&sig=AOD64_2unK2Hm4AAr0F74kssxqsZS4z6Zw&q&adurl&ved=2ahUKEwiqwabW6rHtAhXHasAKHTuUDsoQ0Qx6BAgNEAE
  4. World Health Organization (WHO). “Progress in global measles control and mortality reduction, 2000–2007“, Weekly Epidemiological Record, Geneva: WHO, 2008: 83(49):441–448.
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  6. Copenhagen Consensus 2008. Available at: http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com(Accessed 1 December 2009).
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  8. World Health Organization Immunization, Vaccines and Biologics (WHO/IVB) database. Database includes 193 WHO Member States. Data as of July 2009.
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  10. Plotkin SL, Plotkin SA. “A short history of vaccination,” In: Plotkin S, Orenstein W, Offit PA. Vaccines, 5th edition, Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008.

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