Cough and Cold

Introduction
  • Cough and Cold usually occur as a result of the body’s natural defense against an allergen, a bacteria or a viral upper respiratory tract infection
Symptoms

Cough and Cold usually occurs with any of these symptoms

  • Excessive mucus production
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Nasal congestion
  • Watery eyes
  • Redness of the eyes
  • Nasal discharge
  • Foul breath
  • Sore throat
Treatment
  • Antihistamines like Loratadine, chlorpheniramine, fexofenadine can help reduce symptoms like sneezing, watery eyes
  • Decongestant pills like Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine can unblock the sinuses and airways can make it easier for you to breathe.
  • Nasal drops and sprays usually contain decongestants and/or steroids that unblock your air ways
  • Cough and Cold preparations are to be used with caution in children below age 2 years
  • IV or oral glucocorticoids are commonly used to relieve symptoms
Prevention

Vaccines are available that can provide immunity against Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) bacteria which account for most upper respiratory tract infections.

Learn more about Upper respiratory tract infections at emedicine.medscape.com/article/302460-overview

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